News You Can Use Digest - April 9, 2021 - State and Federal Communications

April 9, 2021  •  

News You Can Use Digest – April 9, 2021


‘A Complete Ripoff’: Campaign finance experts puzzled and stunned by Trump camp’s reported ‘money bomb’ ploy
MSN – Grace Panetta (Business Insider) | Published: 4/6/2021

Some donors who gave a few hundred dollars to former President Trump’s reelection campaign were shocked to see thousands drained from their accounts. Refund requests spiked in the final months of the campaign. A New York Times investigation detailed a recurring donation scheme reportedly referred to as “the money bomb” the Trump campaign used to pad its coffers in the final months of the campaign through the Republican fundraising platform WinRed. The payments, according to the Times, essentially functioned as an “interest-free loan” from Trump’s donors to his campaign, which faced financial turmoil in the months leading up to the November 3 election.

Corporate America Isn’t Welcoming Former Trump Cabinet Officials with Open Arms, Headhunters Say
MSN – Tory Newmyer (Washington Post) | Published: 4/7/2021

Before she joined the Trump administration as transportation secretary, Elaine Chao earned millions of dollars over the past decade by serving on the boards of big public companies such as Dole Foods and Wells Fargo. She offered sterling credentials to businesses eager to keep current with the Republican leadership, but Chao is encountering a fraught reentry into the private sector. Headhunters who have sought similarly prominent work for Chao have found little interest. While the small numbers make comparisons difficult, corporations do not seem to have an immediate interest in other top Trump administration alums either.

Corporate America Isn’t Welcoming Former Trump Cabinet Officials with Open Arms, Headhunters Say
MSN – Tory Newmyer (Washington Post) | Published: 4/5/2021

Before she joined the Trump administration as transportation secretary, Elaine Chao earned millions of dollars over the past decade by serving on the boards of big public companies such as Dole Foods and Wells Fargo. She offered sterling credentials to businesses eager to keep current with the Republican leadership, but Chao is encountering a fraught reentry into the private sector. Headhunters who have sought similarly prominent work for Chao have found little interest. While the small numbers make comparisons difficult, corporations do not seem to have an immediate interest in other top Trump administration alums either.

Covid Survivors Look to Turn Grief into Lobbying Clout
Politico – Alice Miranda Ollstein | Published: 4/5/2021

Activists with chronic illnesses helped save the Affordable Care Act from repeal and gun violence survivors built a movement to take on the National Rifle Association. Now, a cohort of COVID-19 survivors is working to turn their grief into political power. As President Biden pitches a multi-trillion-dollar package to shore up the country’s physical infrastructure, the new advocates, including people who lost loved ones to the virus, are focusing their grassroots lobbying on the follow-up plan Biden is expected to unveil addressing the country’s “human infrastructure.” Fresh off a round of lobbying in favor of the pandemic aid bill, recently formed groups are also launching efforts at the federal and state levels.

Democratic Firm Aims to Diversify Consultant Class
Politico – James Arkin | Published: 4/5/2021

A major Democratic consulting firm is building a new public affairs practice and launching a paid fellowship program intended to increase diversity in the party’s consultant class. Left Hook, a firm that works with major congressional candidates and committees, is launching the fellowship program this fall and bringing on a new veteran campaign operative to run a public affairs division. The effort is part of a long-term goal to increase the diversity in their own ranks in the hopes of pushing the party to further develop talent pipelines for women and people of color.

Former Trump HUD Official Fined, Barred from Government Employment
Politico – Katy O’Donnell | Published: 4/6/2021

A federal watchdog fined former Trump housing official Lynne Patton $1,000 and barred her from federal employment for four years after she violated a law prohibiting executive branch employees from engaging in political activities while on duty. The U.S. Office of Special Counsel penalized Patton, who served as Housing and Urban Development regional administrator for New York and New Jersey, over a video she produced with New York City Housing Authority residents to air at the 2020 Republican National Convention.

Gaetz Is Said to Have Boasted of His ‘Access to Women’ Provided by Friend Charged in Sex-Trafficking Case
MSN – Michael Scherer and Matt Zapotosky (Washington Post) | Published: 4/2/2021

U.S. Rep. Matt Gaetz repeatedly boasted to people involved in Florida politics about women he met through a county tax collector who has since been charged by federal authorities with sex trafficking of a minor, according to two people who heard his comments directly. They said Gatetz also showed them videos on his phone of naked or topless women on multiple occasions, including at parties with Joel Greenberg, the former tax collector for Seminole County. The Justice Department is investigating whether Gaetz paid for sex with women in violation of federal sex-trafficking laws.

Gaetz Reported to Have Sought a ‘Blanket’ Pardon from Trump
Politico – Benjamin Dinn and Matt Dixon | Published: 4/6/2021

U.S. Rep. Matt Gaetz allegedly sought a “blanket” presidential pardon from Donald Trump in the closing weeks of his administration, a request which was ultimately not fulfilled. The request for a blanket preemptive pardon for Gaetz and unidentified congressional allies, came as the Justice Department was opening an investigation into whether Gaetz had a sexual relationship with a 17-year-old and paid for her to travel across state lines.

Honduras Hired Elite D.C. Law Firm in Failed Lobbying Effort to Derail ‘State-Sponsored Drug Trafficking Probe’ of President’s Brother
MSN – Spencer Hsu (Washington Post) | Published: 4/1/2021

Honduran President Juan Orlando Hernández’s government retained an influential Washington, D.C. law firm to lobby U.S. prosecutors to call off a “state-sponsored drug trafficking” probe of his brother, who was sentenced recently for smuggling 185 tons of cocaine into the United States. Prosecutors cited the failed September 2019 influence campaign by Arnold & Porter Kaye Scholer, along with the murder of four people linked to the investigation, in urging stiff punishment for Juan Antonio Hernández, who is also a former Honduran lawmaker.

New Labor Secretary’s Ex-Boston Aides Line Up to Lobby in D.C.
Bloomberg Law – Ben Penn | Published: 4/6/2021

Three former senior aides who served under Labor Secretary Marty Walsh when he was Boston’s mayor are now lobbyists seeking to promote business interests in matters facing the U.S. Labor Department. Such career pivots are common in Washington, where businesses prize individuals who have working relationships with policymakers. There is no indication the trio of former staffers will have an easier time than any other company or union representative in gaining access to the new secretary. But the Walsh acolytes’ shift to labor lobbying highlights the business community’s desire to tap into the new secretary’s penchant for pragmatism and receptiveness to employer concerns despite his roots in organized labor.

Republicans Ramp Up Attacks on Corporations Over Georgia Voting Law, Threaten ‘Consequences’
MSN – Marianna Sotomayor and Todd Frankel (Washington Post) | Published: 4/5/2021

Republicans are attacking corporations over their decision to condemn the controversial Georgia voting law, part of the party’s embrace of the populism espoused by former President Trump even as it creates tensions with traditional allies in the business community. Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell accused corporations of siding with Democrats’ portrayal of the law as the new Jim Crow. His statement included a threat of unspecified “serious consequences” if companies continued to stand opposite Republicans on a variety of issues. The acrimony underscores the party’s increasingly fraying relationship with corporate America over social and cultural issues.

Sen. Ted Cruz Illegally Promoted His Book with Campaign Funds, Watchdog Alleges in Ethics Complaints
CNBC – Kevin Breuninger | Published: 4/7/2021

The Campaign Legal Center (CLC) alleges U.S. Sen. Ted Cruz violated campaign finance rules by using donor funds to promote his book. The CLC accused Cruz’s campaign committee of spending up to $18,000 in late 2020 on Facebook advertisements that “exclusively” urged viewers to buy copies of the senator’s book. Those ads included links to buy the book from third-party online booksellers, said the CLC. “Because Cruz receives royalties from book sales, his campaign crossed a legal line by spending donor funds on Facebook ads promoting sales of that book,” said Brendan Fischer, CLC director of federal reform.

The Battle for Tribune: Inside the campaign to find new owners for a legendary group of newspapers
MSN – Elahe Izade and Sarah Ellison (Washington Post) | Published: 4/5/2021

Last year, as a group of Baltimore Sun reporters embarked on a quest to find a new owner that could save their paper from a hedge-fund takeover, Ted Venetoulis, a former Baltimore County executive, launched the Save Our Sun campaign. It would eventually inspire a national effort to keep nearly a dozen newspapers owned by the same chain from being bought by Alden Global Capital, a hedge fund with a singular reputation for gutting newsrooms. Although millionaires and political insiders were crucial to the rescue plan, so too were the reporters who work at the threatened papers.

White House Meets Little Resistance in Hiring Former Lobbyists
The Hill – Alex Gangitano | Published: 4/6/2021

Alethea Predeoux, a former lobbyist for the American Federation of Government Employees, and Charanya Krishnaswami, who lobbied for Amnesty International, received ethics waivers to join the Biden administration. The moves come after President Biden signed an executive order placing restrictions on all former registered lobbyists working in the administration, drawing praise from advocacy groups. Some of those same organizations have taken no issue with the recent waivers. Stephanie Taylor, co-founder of Progressive Change Campaign Committee, said: “Public interest lobbyists are generally not an issue. The issue is corporate lobbyists who could … skew hundreds of billions of dollars to their former industry.”

From the States and Municipalities

Alabama Alabama Secretary of State John Merrill Admits Affair, Won’t Run for U.S. Senate: ‘There’s no excuse’ – Connor Sheets and Kyle Whitmore | Published: 4/7/2021

After initially denying reports of an extramarital affair, Alabama Secretary of State John Merrill admitted he had “an inappropriate relationship” with a legal assistant and will not make an anticipated run for the U.S. Senate. The revelations threw a wrench into the race to replace Sen. Richard Shelby, who is retiring. While campaigning for secretary of state, rumors that Merrill had a consensual encounter with a married woman in 2010 circulated. The allegation did little to stymie Merrill’s political aspirations, which continued with his 2019 campaign for U.S. Senate, where he was one of five GOP candidates hoping to unseat incumbent Democrat Doug Jones. In that campaign, Merrill made headlines for his comments about family values.

California Carlsbad Approves Campaign Contribution Limits
San Diego Union Tribune – Phil Diehl | Published: 4/7/2021

Carlsbad lowered the limits on individual campaign contributions in a compromise that some city council members said was an effort to level the playing field for local candidates. Instead of using California’s default limit of $4,900 per donor, the council voted to set the maximum at $900 for council district elections and $3,100 for the mayoral and other citywide elected offices. The council also added a $10,000 cap on personal campaign loans.

California How GOP Used Misinformation, Partisan News Sites to Flip California House Seats
CalMatters – Freddie Brewster and Katie Licari | Published: 3/26/2021

Last fall, Republicans flipped four congressional seats in California previously held by Democrats. Although the races varied in their rhetoric, they had one thing in common: the National Republican Congressional Committee targeted all four Democratic candidates in dossiers posted publicly that were filled with information, some of it false, used by some candidates for negative campaigning. The misinformation in turn was amplified not only on social media but by a handful of upstart conservative partisan news outlets.

Connecticut Jon Lender: $20,000 ethics fine paid two years after being levied on former UConn official, who awarded her husband a $53,000 fellowship
MSN – Jon Lender (Hartford Courant) | Published: 4/2/2021

Former University of Connecticut graduate school diversity officer Charmane Thurmand, who was found by state ethics officials to have improperly given her husband a $53,000 fellowship, paid a $20,000 fine two years after it was levied, finally ending a contentious case. In March 2019, The Citizen’s Ethics Advisory Board ordered Thurmand to pay the maximum $10,000 fine for each of two violations it found she had committed three years earlier. The Office of State Ethics filed an enforcement action with the help of the state attorney general’s office to collect the money.

Florida Ethics Questions Raised About Developer Tapped for Riviera’s $300M Marina Project
MSN – Tony Doris (Palm Beach Post) | Published: 4/5/2021

Turning Riviera Beach’s waterfront into a municipal centerpiece has been a challenge for city officials and most of the construction has yet to materialize. As negotiators and Community Redevelopment Agency (CRA) staff work behind the scenes, a new challenge has arisen for the city council members, who sit as the CRA board of directors. A series of articles cast one of the main developers, Vaughn Irons, in an unfavorable light. The stories focus on Irons allegedly presenting a document purporting to be from the DeKalb County Ethics Board that found it would not be a conflict for him to win a $1.5 million county contract while serving as chair of the county’s Economic Development Authority. The Ethics Board said it never issued that opinion.

Florida Former Boca Raton Mayor Susan Haynie Pleads Guilty to Misusing Office; Corruption Felonies Dropped
South Florida Sun Sentinel – Marc Freeman | Published: 4/1/2021

Former Boca Raton Mayor Susan Haynie pleaded guilty to charges arising out of a public corruption case that ended her long political career. With her plea deal, she shook off all four felony corruption counts. Haynie no longer stands accused of concealing hundreds of thousands of dollars in income, including money from prominent city developers. She pleaded guilty to misuse of public office and failure to disclose a voting conflict, and received 122 months on probation.

Florida Who Is Lobbying to Change Florida’s Privacy Laws? That’s Private
Politico – Matt Dixon | Published: 4/1/2021

A mysterious group is the driving lobbying force behind legislation that would beef up Florida’s data privacy laws. It has hired a Tallahassee-based lobbying team and spent $300,000 in political contributions, but almost no one, including the sponsors of the bills, has any idea who is behind the group. The organization, Propel Florida, is a nonprofit that is not required to disclose its donors, lists a UPS box in Lithia as its only address and was incorporated last April. But over the first half of the 2021 legislative session, the group has flexed its political muscle.

Georgia Georgia’s Republican Party Accused of Illegally Accepting In-Kind Contributions from an Election Integrity Nonprofit in a New FEC Complaint
Yahoo News – Grace Panetta (Business Insider) | Published: 3/31/2021

Two watchdog groups filed a complaint with the FEC accusing the Georgia Republican Party of illegally accepting in-kind contributions from True the Vote, a nonprofit that engaged in election-related activities around Georgia’s U.S. Senate runoffs., and not properly reporting them. The FEC defines in-kind contributions as a “non-monetary contribution” to benefit a campaign or committee. Federal law bans corporations (including both for-profit and non-profit organizations) from making such contributions to candidates or party committees or coordinating with them.

Georgia MLB All-Star Game Yanked from Georgia Over Voting Law
Associated Press News – Ronald Blume | Published: 4/2/2021

Atlanta lost Major League Baseball’s All-Star Game over the league’s objections to sweeping changes to Georgia voting laws that critics, including the chief executive officers of Atlanta-based Delta Air Lines and Coca-Cola, have condemned as being too restrictive. Gov. Brian Kemp has insisted the law’s critics have mischaracterized what it does, yet GOP lawmakers adopted the changes largely in response to false claims of fraud in the 2020 elections by former President Trump and his supporters. The law includes new restrictions on voting by mail and greater legislative control over how elections are run.

Illinois Feds Put Spotlight on Cook County Commissioner Luis Arroyo Jr. in Sprawling Corruption Probe
WBEZ – Tony Arnold | Published: 4/7/2021

A sitting Cook County commissioner is now under the federal microscope as part of a sprawling federal corruption investigation into lobbyists and politicians in Illinois. The latest elected official to face scrutiny is Cook County Commissioner Luis Arroyo Jr. Federal prosecutors issued a subpoena earlier this year to the Illinois Department of Revenue. The subpoena requested the agency release tax returns for Arroyo, his lobbying firm, and his wife. In 2019, Arroyo filed paperwork to lobby the Illinois Legislature while his father was a member. It is not illegal to lobby one government body while serving as an elected official in another, but state lawmakers are considering banning the practice.

Illinois Illinois House Hears Ethics Proposals, Including ‘Revolving Door’ Prohibition for Lawmakers
The Center Square – Greg Bishop | Published: 4/5/2021

Lawmakers in an Illinois House committee are picking up on things the previous General Assembly attempted to address but was sidetracked last year by COVID-19. Stories boiled over throughout 2019 about corruption at the statehouse. They include a lawmaker wearing a wire catching another legislator in an alleged bribe, to other officials having their offices raided by federal investigators. The Ethics and Elections Committee heard about several ideas to address the problem.

Illinois No Limit? Republican Gary Rabine Ups the Ante in High-Stakes Governor’s Race
Chicago Sun-Times – Andrew Sullander | Published: 4/5/2021

Four years after the Illinois race for governor broke national records for self-financing candidates, next year’s contest is shaping up to be another duel of the deep pockets. Businessperson Gary Rabine notified state election officials he had donated enough of his own cash to his gubernatorial campaign to lift all fundraising caps on the race.

Iowa Iowa Democrat Drops Attempt to Contest House Race, Citing ‘Toxic Campaign of Political Disinformation’
MSN – Marianna Sotomayer (Washington Post) | Published: 3/31/2021

Democrat Rita Hart dropped her challenge in the Iowa Second Congressional District race, asking the House to no longer consider an investigation into the outcome of her race against Republican Mariannette Miller-Meeks following intense Republican pushback. Miller-Meeks was declared the winner over Hart following a recount with a difference of just six votes out of 400,000 cast. Hart alleges 22 legally cast ballots were not considered during the initial November canvass and subsequent recount, resulting in the tightest congressional electoral outcome in modern history.

Kentucky Democratic Governor in Deep-Red Kentucky Signs Bill to Expand Voting, Bucking National Trend
MSN – Tim Elfrink (Washington Post) | Published: 4/8/2021

As Republicans from Georgia to Texas have pushed bills to restrict voting after President Trump’s loss, a markedly different story played out in deep-red Kentucky. The Bluegrass State’s GOP-dominated Legislature instead passed a bipartisan bill to expand access to the ballot box. Kentucky’s Democratic governor, Andy Beshear, signed the measure, which mandates three days of no-excuse early voting, drop-boxes in every county, and an online portal to register absentee, among other changes.

Michigan Dominion Says Ex-Michigan State Senator’s Election Fraud Claims ‘Successfully Duped Thousands of People’
MSN – Katie Shepherd (Washington Post) | Published: 4/5/2021

For months, former Michigan Sen. Patrick Colbeck has repeated baseless claims about mass fraud in the presidential election to state senators and pro-Trump crowds, falsely insinuating that rigged voting machines and bogus ballots swayed the results. Now, Colbeck is the latest target in Dominion Voting Systems’ legal battle to combat claims by Republican allies of former President Trump the company says have damaged its reputation. Dominion demanded Colbeck retract his “demonstrably false claims” about the 2020 election results.

Montana Montana House Rejects Bill Calling Media ‘Slander Machines’
Associated Press News – Iris Samuels | Published: 4/7/2021

The Montana House narrowly rejected a measure that sought to prevent media outlets from reporting on news that lawmakers deem defamatory. The Stop Guilt by Accusation Act closely resembles bills introduced in at least four other states. None have been signed into law. Supporters of the measure said it was not meant to silence the media, but to ensure that reporting on public figures does not stray from the truth. Opponents said they wished to protect the public debate fostered by a free media.

New Mexico Redistricting Bill One of 50 Signed into Law Tuesday by Lujan Grisham
Yahoo News – Robert Knott | Published: 4/7/2021

New Mexico Gov. Michelle Lujan Grisham signed a bill that will create an independent, seven-member commission to redraw election district boundaries later this year, a victory for good-government advocates who say the maps too often are influenced by state politicians’ self-interest. Commissioners will be chosen no later than July 1 and have up to four months to come up with a plan using Census Bureau data. The coronavirus pandemic has led to a delay in the release of that information, which is estimated to be made public in September. The Legislature will then convene a special session to choose the final plans.

New York New York Attorney General Probes Finances of Key Trump Aide
MSN – David Fahrenthold and Shayna Jacobs (Washington Post) | Published: 4/1/2021

The New York attorney general has gathered personal financial records of the Trump Organization’s longtime chief financial officer and his family, another sign of legal pressure on one of former President Trump’s closest aides. Allen Weisselberg has handled Trump’s finances for decades, rising to become the company’s most powerful person not named “Trump.” In complex investigations, prosecutors often seek evidence of wrongdoing by subordinates to pressure them to reveal damaging information about their bosses. The pressure by both offices being brought to bear on Weisselberg appears designed to pursue that strategy against Trump.

North Carolina Bar Lobbyists from UNC Board of Governors, a New Bill Says. 3 of Them Are Members Now.
MSN – Lucille Sherman and Kate Murphy (Raleigh News and Observer) | Published: 4/5/2021

A bill would bar the Legislature from appointing lobbyists to the University of North Carolina System Board of Governors. Senate Bill 546 would cut off one way some lawmakers influence the state’s higher education system by appointing close allies and donors. The bill would prevent lobbyists from trying to balance the interests of the system with those of clients who want certain legislation passed and lawmakers whose support they need to bring those bills across the finish line. Some lobbyists with big-name clients also have the power to direct campaign money to legislators, said watchdog Bob Hall.

North Dakota Citing Too Much Paperwork, North Dakota Lawmakers Sink Bills to Boost Campaign Finance Transparency – Jeremy Turley | Published: 4/6/2021

North Dakota senators defeated two bills that would have required political donors to disclose where their money is going, citing a likely increase in the amount of paperwork expected of partisan groups that help elect lawmakers. Candidates and political committees are not legally compelled in North Dakota to detail which campaigns they are supporting or opposing with donations. A bipartisan group of lawmakers set out to change that after Gov. Doug Burgum bankrolled millions of hard-to-track dollars in political advertising for and against candidates during last year’s election cycle.

Ohio Bill Seeks to End ‘Dark Money’ Spending in Ohio Elections
The Courier – Tyler Buchanan (Ohio Capital Journal) | Published: 4/6/2021

Republican lawmakers are proposing to revamp some of Ohio’s campaign finance laws that would shine a light on “dark money” groups. Public officials from both parties have called for reforms in the wake of the House Bill 6 scandal, which saw the speaker of the state House arrested, as well as widespread attention paid to how certain groups navigate campaign finance and tax laws to anonymously influence election results.

Ohio Columbus Zoo Investigation: CEO used zoo money personally, failed to bid construction project at The Wilds
MSN – Alissa Widman Reese | Published: 4/6/2021

Former Columbus Zoo and Aquarium Chief Executive Officer Tom Stalf used zoo funds to purchase a recreational vehicle for his exclusive use and used it for a family trip, according to an investigation by a law firm hired by the zoo’s board of directors. Stalf also personally selected the vendor for a $2 million construction project and did not seek competitive bidding. The findings are among the new revelations detailed in the zoo’s first public update on the case. Staif and former Chief Financial Officer Greg Bell resigned after it was reported they used zoo assets personally and for the benefit of their families.

Ohio Ohio Elections Complaint Seeks Campaign Spending Details from Householder-Aligned Candidate
MSN – Andrew Tobias (Cleveland Plain Dealer) | Published: 4/7/2021

A conservative activist issued subpoenas as part of a state elections case he filed against a former state legislative candidate aligned with then-Ohio House Speaker Larry Householder. Chris Hicks is hoping to uncover information about campaign spending for Allen Freeman, who in May 2020 finished last in a Republican primary for a state House seat. The Ohio Elections Commission authorized Hicks’ complaint for a full hearing, which gives him power to subpoena records and, in some instances, compel people to answer questions in writing.

Texas What’s Inside Texas’s Move to Overhaul Voting Rules
The Hill – Reid Wilson | Published: 4/7/2021

The war over voting access that has roiled Georgia is headed next to Texas, where Republican legislators are working through an omnibus elections overhaul package that would dramatically change the way some voters cast a ballot in future contests. The measure has been labeled a priority by both Gov. Greg Abbott and Lt. Gov. Dan Patrick, who controls the state Senate. It follows on the heels of election overhauls that passed in 2017 and failed in 2019, but after a chaotic election held amid a pandemic, it aims to crack down on several practices that supporters say ran afoul of current state law.

Vermont Anti-Bottle Bill ‘Patch Call’ Campaign Draws Fire – James Finn | Published: 4/7/2021

A campaign by a group of business lobbyists tried to thwart a bill that would reform recycling in Vermont through a “grassroots” effort. That campaign sparked confusion among lawmakers and constituents who have found themselves on the receiving end of the lobbying efforts and drawn criticism from environmentalists who say the group is being deceptive about its intentions. Vermonters for Recycling claims to be a “community organization” that “advocates for smart, reasonable and effective solutions for the effective reuse of waste materials in Vermont.” But despite the grassroots appearance, the group is run by a Boston-based lobbying firm hired by Vermont business groups that oppose House Bill 175.

Virginia Unorthodox Republican Contest for Virginia Governor Breeds Confusion, Suspicion
MSN – Laura Vozella (Washington Post) | Published: 4/4/2021

Virginia Republicans are a month away from picking their candidate for governor – not by voters going to the ballot box, but instead by way of a byzantine internal nomination process that has bred confusion and suspicion among the party faithful. Longtime activists and newcomers are struggling to understand how to conduct and partake in the “unassembled convention,” an unorthodox format chosen by party leaders during a pandemic and a GOP family feud. As a nomination method, conventions are easier to manipulate than primaries because local party leaders control the application process, decide who is eligible to vote. and pick the convention location.

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